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Fungi provide important forest ecosystem services worldwide. In Mediterranean pine forests, predictedwarmer and drier conditions could lead to a decline in mushroom yields. Climate is a key factor regulatingboth tree growth and fungal yields, particularly in drought-prone Mediterranean ecosystems. However,the responses of forest growth and mushroom production to climate depend on the differences amongtree and fungal species and functional groups (e.g., mycorrhizal vs. saprotrophic), forest types, as wellas depending on site conditions. Here we investigate how climatic conditions drive seasonal wood for-mation (earlywood −EW− and latewood −LW− production) and mycorrhizal mushroom production, todisentangle if growth and fungal yields are related. This assessment was done in Mediterranean forestsdominated by four pine species in two areas located in Catalonia (NE Spain) representing mesic andxeric conditions and encompassing wide ecological gradients. The data consisted of 7-year to 13-yearlong inventories of mushroom production. EW production was favoured by cold and wet climate condi-tions during the previous fall and winter, and during the current spring and summer. LW production wasenhanced by warm and humid conditions from spring to early fall. Mushroom yield was improved by wetlate-summer and fall conditions, mainly in the most xeric area. This study confirms the ample differencesfound in tree growth and fungal production along ecological and climatic gradients. Clear relationshipsbetween mycorrhizal fungal yields and tree growth were mostly observed in specific sites characterizedby severe summer drought. Specifically, latewood production seems to be the tree-ring variable mosttightly linked to mycorrhizal fungal yield in drought-prone areas.